Few treatment options are available for patients suffering from diseased and injured organs because of a severe shortage of donor organs available for transplantation. Therapeutic cloning, where the nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte in order to extract pluripotent embryonic stem cells, offers a potentially limitless source of cells for replacement therapy. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and engineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The present chapter reviews recent advances that have occurred in therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure.
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