TLR ligands differentially modulate T cell responses to acute and chronic antigen presentation

  • Singh N
  • Cox M
  • Schwartz R
  • 1


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


The outcome of peripheral T cell activation is thought to be largely determined by the context in which the cognate Ag is initially presented. In this framework, microbial products that can activate APCs via TLRs are considered critical in converting an otherwise tolerogenic context to an immunogenic one. We examine this idea using a model system where naive T cells are stimulated in the periphery by a persistent self Ag. The addition of multiple TLR ligands to this context, acutely or chronically, failed to significantly alter the tolerogenic phenotype in the responding T cells. This contrasts with the ability of such adjuvants to improve T cell responses to soluble peptide immunizations. We reconcile this difference by revealing a hitherto poorly appreciated property of TLR ligands, which extends the duration of soluble Ag presentation in vivo by an additional two to three days. Finally, we could replace the requirement for TLR-mediated APC activation in soluble-Ag-induced T cell expansion and differentiation, by maintaining the Ag depot in vivo using repeated immunizations. These data suggest a novel process by which TLR ligands modulate T cell responses to acute Ags, without disrupting the induction of tolerance to persistent self Ags.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Autoantigens
  • Autoimmune Diseases
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Ligands
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Mice
  • Peptides
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Toll-Like Receptors

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • N J Singh

  • M Cox

  • R H Schwartz

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free