Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in detection of invading pathogens as well as triggering of subsequent inflammatory and immune responses. Each TLR recognizes distinct microbial components and activates different signaling pathways by selective utilization of adaptor molecules. The signaling via TLRs is delivered from the cell surface and/or the endosome. Recently, the intracytoplasmic detection system of microbes has been identified in mammals as well. Peptidoglycan breakdown products and double-stranded RNA are sensed by NOD family and RNA helicase domain containing proteins, respectively. Thus, mammals make use of both receptor-type and intracellular proteins as detectors of invading pathogens.
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