The CCR4-CAF1-NOT complex is a major cytoplasmic deadenylation complex in yeast and mammals. This complex associates with RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs to repress translation of target mRNAs. We sought to determine how CCR4 and CAF1 participate in repression and control of maternal mRNAs using Xenopus laevis oocytes. We show that Xenopus CCR4 and CAF1 enzymes are active deadenylases and repress translation of an adenylated mRNA. CAF1 also represses translation independent of deadenylation. The deadenylation-independent repression requires a 5' cap structure on the mRNA; however, deadenylation does not. We suggest that mere recruitment of CAF1 is sufficient for repression, independent of deadenylation.
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