Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of mitral regurgitation severity: Usefulness of qualitative and semiquantitative techniques

  • Khanna D
  • Miller A
  • Nanda N
 et al. 
  • 16


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 33


    Citations of this article.


In this report, we review the advantages, limitations, and optimal utilization of various transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic (TTE and TEE) methods used for assessing mitral regurgitation (MR) as published in full-length, peer-reviewed articles since the color Doppler era began in 1984. In addition, comparison is made to other imaging modalities including catheter-based, magnetic resonance and surgical assessment of MR. Although left ventricular (LV) angiography has been traditionally used for validation of various TTE methods and is time-honored, its considerable limitations preclude it from being a real "gold standard." Based on the reviewed literature, no clear "gold standard" for the assessment of MR can be identified at present, but newly emerging TTE and TEE techniques, such as three-dimensional color Doppler, may have the potential to overcome some of the limitations of the two-dimensional methods. © 2005 "Blackwell Publishing".

Author-supplied keywords

  • Echocardiography
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Proximal isovelocity surface area
  • Quantitative Doppler
  • Regurgitant jet area
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction echocardiography
  • Vena contracta area
  • Vena contracta width

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Deepak Khanna

  • Andrew P. Miller

  • Navin C. Nanda

  • Sujood Ahmed

  • Steven G. Lloyd

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free