Since the discovery of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 in 2000, evidence documenting the profound ability of the TREM and TREM-like receptors to regulate inflammation has rapidly accumulated. Monocytes, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, neutrophils, microglia, osteoclasts, and platelets all express at least one member of the TREM family, underscoring the importance of these proteins in the regulation of innate resistance. Recent work on the TREM family includes: characterization of a new receptor expressed on plasmacytoid dendritic cells; definition of a key role for TREM in inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis; an expanded list of diseases associated with the release of soluble forms of TREM proteins; and identification of the first well characterized TREM ligand: B7-H3, a ligand for TREM-like Transcript (TLT)-2. Moreover, analysis of TREM signaling has now identified key regulatory components and defined pathways that may be responsible for the complex functional interactions between the TREM and toll-like receptors. In addition, there is expanding evidence of a role for TREM in the regulation of integrin function via Plexin-A1. Together these new findings define the TREM and TREM-like receptors as pluripotent modifiers of disease through the integration of inflammatory signals with those associated with leukocyte adhesion.
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