This paper argues for the use of landmarks (e.g. traffic lights, churches, petrol stations) within the turn-by-turn visual and voice directions given by in-vehicle navigation systems. Such prominent features of the driving environment are consistent with basic human navigational strategies, are valued by drivers, and have been shown significantly to improve the usability of electronic in-car navigational aids. For future systems actively to include such information, it is critical that a) only ‘good’ landmarks are used, b) such landmarks are presented to the driver in the most appropriate way, and c) the practical needs of industry are fully accounted for.
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