T-wave alternans in LQTS: Repolarization-rate dynamics from digital 12-lead Holter data

  • Brockmeier K
  • Asian I
  • Hilbel T
 et al. 
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T-wave alternans (TWA) is a harbinger of ventricular vulnerability and an important prognostic indicator for torsade de pointes and likely sudden death in patients with LQTS. We analyzed the occurrence of TWA in 18 patients with LQTS (7 males, 11 females, ages ranging from 6 months to 32 years - median 8.4 years). Analysis was performed with software to investigate dynamics of cycle length mediated repolarization changes. Digital Holter ECG analysis revealed macroscopic, true TWA in 3 of 18 patients. TWA showed a variable morphological expression. One patient had continuous changes of T wave polarity, but not on a periodic beat-to-beat basis. Onsets of macroscopic TWA were preceded by long/short cycle length sequences and tachycardic rates above 130 to 140 bpm. Impact of ventricular premature beats on TWA onset was insignificant. Two of the identified patients with TWA had sudden cardiac death during follow-up (one refused PM therapy). At present, TWA cannot be detected automatically from Holter ECGs and therefore may be missed, despite the potential danger for the individuals. The observation that predominantly high beat rates and not beat rate changes, per se, triggered episodes of TWA renders difficult general therapeutic recommendations for the identified patients at risk. © 2001 Churchill Livingstone.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Digital Holter
  • Long-QT syndrome
  • Sudden death in children
  • TWA

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  • Kondrad Brockmeier

  • Ilhan Asian

  • Thomas Hilbel

  • Tilman Eberle

  • Herbert E. Ulmer

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