Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications

  • M. A
  • J.X. J
  • G.A. K
 et al. 
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The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *energy conservation
  • *energy resource
  • *green chemistry
  • *green energy storage
  • *storage
  • article
  • combustion
  • degradation
  • electric battery
  • environmental impact
  • fossil fuel
  • generator
  • government
  • human
  • load carrying capacity
  • mechanical stress
  • natural gas
  • power supply
  • renewable energy
  • safety
  • shelf life
  • solar energy
  • vanadium
  • vanadium redox flow battery
  • wind power

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  • Arbabzadeh M.

  • Johnson J.X.

  • Keoleian G.A.

  • Rasmussen P.G.

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