Type 1 diabetes is associated with enterovirus infection in gut mucosa.

  • Oikarinen M
  • Tauriainen S
  • Oikarinen S
 et al. 
  • 6


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause [beta]-cell damage in experimental models. Viral persistence has been suspected to be an important pathogenetic factor. This study evaluates whether gut mucosa is a reservoir for enterovirus persistence in type 1 diabetic patients. Small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples from 39 type 1 diabetic patients, 41 control subjects, and 40 celiac disease patients were analyzed for the presence of enterovirus using in situ hybridization (ISH), RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The presence of virus was compared with inflammatory markers such as infiltrating T cells, HLA-DR expression, and transglutaminase 2-targeted IgA deposits. Enterovirus RNA was found in diabetic patients more frequently than in control subjects and was associated with a clear inflammation response in the gut mucosa. Viral RNA was often detected in the absence of viral protein, suggesting defective replication of the virus. Patients remained virus positive in follow-up samples taken after 12 months' observation. The results suggest that a large proportion of type 1 diabetic patients have prolonged/persistent enterovirus infection associated with an inflammation process in gut mucosa. This finding opens new opportunities for studying the viral etiology of type 1 diabetes.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 -- Etiology
  • Enterovirus Infections -- Complications
  • Enteroviruses
  • Female
  • HLA Antigens -- Analysis
  • Human
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Male
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA -- Analysis

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • M Oikarinen

  • S Tauriainen

  • S Oikarinen

  • T Honkanen

  • P Collin

  • I Rantala

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free