Type I ULIRGs: Transition Stage from ULIRGs to QSOs

  • Kawakatu N
  • Anabuki N
  • Nagao T
 et al. 
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Abstract

We examine whether the ultraluminous infrared galaxies that contain a type I Seyfert nucleus (a type I ULIRG) are in the transition stage from ULIRGs to quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). To inspect this issue, we compare the black hole (BH) mass, the bulge luminosity and the far infrared luminosity among type I ULIRGs, QSOs and elliptical galaxies. As a result, we find the following results; (1) The type I ULIRGs have systematically smaller BH masses in spite of the comparable bulge luminosity relative to QSOs and elliptical galaxies. (2) The far-infrared luminosity of most type I ULIRGs is larger than the Eddington luminosity. We show that above results do not change significantly for 3 type I ULIRGs that we can estimate the visual extinction from the column density. Also, for all 8 type I ULIRGs, we investigate the effect of uncertainties of BH mass measurments and our sample bias, so that it turns out that our results do not alter even if we consider above two effects. In addition, Anabuki (2004) revealed that their X-ray properties are similar to those of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies. These would indicate that active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a high mass accretion rate exist in the type I ULIRGs. Based on all of these findings, we conclude that it would be a natural interpretation that type I ULIRGs are the early phase of BH growth, namely the missing link between ULIRGs and QSOs. Moreover, by comparing our results with a theoretical model of a coevolution scenario of a QSO BH and a galactic bulge, we show clearly that this explanation would be valid.

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Authors

  • Nozomu Kawakatu

  • Naohisa Anabuki

  • Tohru Nagao

  • Masayuki Umemura

  • Takao Nakagawa

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