E-3810 is a novel small molecule that inhibits VEGF receptor-1, -2, and -3 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 tyrosine kinases at nmol/L concentrations currently in phase clinical II. In preclinical studies, it had a broad spectrum of antitumor activity when used as monotherapy in a variety of human xenografts. We here investigated the activity of E-3810 combined with different cytotoxic agents in a MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer xenograft model. The molecule could be safely administered with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and paclitaxel. The E-3810-paclitaxel combination showed a striking activity with complete, lasting tumor regressions; the antitumor activity of the combination was also confirmed in another triple-negative breast xenograft, MX-1. The activity was superior to that of the combinations paclitaxel+brivanib and paclitaxel+sunitinib. Pharmacokinetics studies suggest that the extra antitumor activity of the combination is not due to higher paclitaxel tumor levels, which in fact were lower in mice pretreated with all three kinase inhibitors, and the paclitaxel plasma levels excluded reduced drug availability. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that E-3810, brivanib, and sunitinib given as single agents or in combination with paclitaxel reduced the number of vessels, but did not modify vessel maturation. Reduced tumor collagen IV and increased plasma collagen IV, associated with increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), particularly host MMP-9, indicate a proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix caused by E-3810 that in conjunction with the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on the tumor cells (caspase-3/7 activity) may contribute to the striking activity of their combination. These data support the therapeutic potential of combining E-3810 with conventional chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(2); 131-40. ©2012 AACR.
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