Gradient metasurfaces have recently been demonstrated to provide control of the phase of scattered fields over subwavelength scales, enabling a broad range of linear optical components in a flat, ultrathin, integrable platform. Additionally, the development of nonlinearmetasurfaces has disrupted conventional nonlinear optical device design by relaxing phase matching constraints, reducing size and dimensionality, and providing record values of localized nonlinear responses. However, extending the “flat optics” paradigm to the nonlinear case faces important challenges, since we are required to simultaneously achieve efficient frequency conversion and sub-diffractive phase control. Here, we experimentally demonstrate continuous phase control of the giant nonlinear second harmonic optical response from metasurfaces tied to intersubband transitions in semiconductor multi-quantum wells, establishing an exciting path toward realizing the vision of flat, nonlinear optics.
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