A general group-theoretical scheme is developed to discuss any symmetry-breaking effects on the 12-fold 1 s- exciton states originating from an s-like and p-like electron-hole pair. All the possible effects on the conduction and valence bands are taken into account by an effective Hamiltonian formalism. For the electron- hole exchange interaction, the simplest term (including dipole-dipole interaction) is considered. The symmetry- breaking effects treated here can be anything; e.g., a magnetic field, an electric field, stress, the finiteness of exciton wave vector, etc., and even the products of them. As a group-theoretical treatment, this theory includes all the relevant previous theories as special cases.
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