An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D food fortification.

  • Black L
  • Seamans K
  • Cashman K
 et al. 
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Food fortification is a potentially effective public health strategy to increase vitamin D intakes and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. We updated a previous systematic review to evaluate current evidence from randomized controlled intervention studies in community-dwelling adults of the effect of fortified foods on 25(OH)D concentrations. Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled intervention studies with vitamin D-fortified foods in free-living adults and data on circulating 25(OH)D. Two reviewers independently screened 441 papers for eligibility and extracted the relevant data. A meta-analysis of the absolute mean change in circulating 25(OH)D concentrations was conducted using a random effects model. Sixteen studies from 15 publications were included, of which 14 showed a significant effect of fortified foods on 25(OH)D concentrations. Heterogeneity was high (P =

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  • Lucinda J Black

  • Kelly M Seamans

  • Kevin D Cashman

  • Mairead Kiely

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