JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. SUMMARY (1) Estimating survival from age structure data is a widely used technique subject to serious biases if the population was changing when the observed age structure developed. (2) Simple modifications of the basic equations for population dynamics make it possible to continue use of the efficient 'Chapman-Robson' methods in such cases. Three examples, in deer and grey seals, demonstrate the procedure. (3) An independent estimate of the rate of population change is needed to estimate survival, but relative survival of the younger age-classes can be estimated without knowing rate of population change.
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