OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of (99m)Tc-human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-HSAD) SPECT in the detection of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (11 men, four women) with aneurysm sac expansion of 5 mm or greater after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair underwent three-phase CT, (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT, and CT during aortography. Sensitivity calculations for three-phase CT and (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT were performed with CT during aortography as the reference standard. The volume of each endoleak was measured with CT during aortography. Seven subjects underwent embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol (ethiodized oil, Guerbet and metallic coils. Three-phase CT and (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT were repeated after embolization to assess their efficacy. RESULTS: Endoleaks were interpreted as perigraft radioisotope accumulation in 12 patients (80.0%) on (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT images, in 13 patients (86.7%) on three-phase CT images, and in 15 patients (100%) on CT during aortography. The mean endoleak volume visualized with (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT was 8.37 cm(3) (range, 5.2-15.1 cm(3)), and the volume not visualized was 3.47 cm(3) (2.5-4.6 cm(3)), a statistically significant difference (p = 0.019). In two patients, (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT depicted endoleaks evident at delayed phase CT during aortography but not at three-phase CT, suggesting they were slow-filling endoleaks. Accumulation of (99m)Tc-HSAD corresponding to endoleaks disappeared after embolization, but CT evaluation of embolization was impeded by artifacts of NBCA-Lipiodol and metallic coils. CONCLUSION: Technetium-99m-labeled HSAD SPECT proved less sensitive than three-phase CT but depicted endoleaks with volumes 5.2 cm(3) or greater as perigraft radioisotope accumulation. Slow-filling endoleaks can be visualized with (99m)Tc-HSAD SPECT, which can be used to evaluate the efficacy of embolization.
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