Validation and Standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener ( GAD - 7 ) in the General Population

  • Löwe B
  • Decker O
  • Müller S
 et al. 
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Abstract

See, stats, and : https : / / www . researchgate . net / publication / 232108522 Validation Generalized (GAD-7) in ARTICLE Impact : 3 . 23 : 10 . 1097 / MLR . 0b013e318160d093 CITATIONS 278 READS 1 , 915 7 , INCLUDING : Bernd University - Eppe… 240 , 407 SEE Elmar University 1 , 203 , 056 SEE Dieter Universität 106 , 615 SEE Wolfgang Universität 418 , 581 SEE Available : Bernd Retrieved : 29 Background : The 7 - item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD - 7) is a practical self - report anxiety questionnaire that proved valid in primary care . However , the GAD - 7 was not yet validated in the general population and thus far , normative data are not available . Objectives : To investigate reliability , construct validity , and facto - rial validity of the GAD - 7 in the general population and to generate normative data . Research Design : Nationally representative face - to - face household survey conducted in Germany between May 5 and June 8 , 2006 . Subjects : Five thousand thirty subjects (53 . 6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48 . 4 (18 . 0) years . Measures : The survey questionnaire included the GAD - 7 , the 2 - item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ - 2) , the Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale , and demographic char - acteristics . Results : Confirmatory factor analyses substantiated the 1 - dimen - sional structure of the GAD - 7 and its factorial invariance for gender and age . Internal consistency was identical across all subgroups (␣ ϭ 0 . 89) . Intercorrelations with the PHQ - 2 and the Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale were r ϭ 0 . 64 (P Ͻ 0 . 001) and r ϭ Ϫ0 . 43 (P Ͻ 0 . 001) , respectively . As expected , women had significantly higher mean (SD) GAD - 7 anxiety scores compared with men ͓3 . 2 (3 . 5) vs . 2 . 7 (3 . 2) ; P Ͻ 0 . 001͔ . Normative data for the GAD - 7 were generated for both genders and different age levels . Approximately 5% of subjects had GAD - 7 scores of 10 or greater , and 1% had GAD - 7 scores of 15 or greater . Conclusions : Evidence supports reliability and validity of the GAD - 7 as a measure of anxiety in the general population . The normative data provided in this study can be used to compare a subject ' s GAD - 7 score with those determined from a general pop - ulation reference group .

Author-supplied keywords

  • anxiety
  • outcome assessment
  • psychometrics
  • reference standards
  • validation studies

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Authors

  • Bernd Löwe

  • Oliver Decker

  • Stefanie Müller

  • Elmar Brähler

  • Dieter Schellberg

  • Wolfgang Herzog

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