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Journal article

The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital

Robert Costanza*†, Ralph d’Arge‡, Rudolf de Groot§, Stephen Farberk, Monica Grasso† B, Karin Limburg#✩, Shahid Naeem**, Robert V. O’Neill††, Jose Paruelo‡‡, Robert G. Raskin§§ P, & Marjan van den Belt¶¶ ...see all

Nature, vol. 387 (1997) pp. 253-600

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Abstract

The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the\r
Earth’s life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent\r
part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services\r
for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of\r
which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$16–54 trillion (1012) per year, with an average of\r
US$33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global\r
gross national product total is around US$18 trillion per year.

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Authors

  • Bruce Hannon¶ Robert Costanza*†, Ralph d’Arge‡, Rudolf de Groot§, Stephen Farberk, Monica Grasso†

  • Paul Suttonkk Karin Limburg#✩, Shahid Naeem**, Robert V. O’Neill††, Jose Paruelo‡‡, Robert G. Raskin§§

  • & Marjan van den Belt¶¶

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