Variants of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma- and beta-adrenergic receptor genes are associated with measures of compensatory eating behaviors in young children

  • Cecil J
  • Palmer C
  • Fischer B
 et al. 
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Abstract

Background: Young children can regulate energy precisely in the short term, showing the potential for an innate compensation mechanism of eating behavior. However, data suggest that precise compensation is attenuated as a function of increasing adiposity, parental feeding style, and age. Common variation in candidate obesity genes may account for some of the individual variation observed in short-term energy compensation. Polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and beta-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) genes have been linked to increased body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), obesity, and more recently dietary nutrients and preferences. In addition, common variation in ADRB3 interacts with PPARG to modulate adult body weight. Objective: This study investigated whether variants in these genes were associated with measurable effects on child eating behavior. Design: Children (n = 84) aged 4-10 y were prospectively selected for variants of the PPARG locus (Pro12Ala, C1431T). Heights and weights were measured. Energy intake from a test meal was measured 90 min after ingestion of a no-energy (NE), low-energy (LE), or high-energy (HE) preload, and the compensation index (COMPX) was calculated. Results: BMI differed significantly by gene model, whereby Pro12Ala was associated with a lower BMI. Poor COMPX was associated with the PPARG T1431 allele (P = 0.009). There was a significant interaction between COMPX and the ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant in modulating compensation (P = 0.003), whereas the Arg64 allele was associated with good compensation (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest that a genetic interaction involving ADRB3 and PPARG variants influences eating behavior in children

Author-supplied keywords

  • AGE
  • ANTIDIABETIC THIAZOLIDINEDIONE
  • BEHAVIOR
  • BEHAVIORS
  • BETA(3)-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR
  • BMI
  • BMI body mass index
  • BODY-MASS
  • BODY-WEIGHT
  • COMPENSATION
  • CONGENITAL LEPTIN DEFICIENCY
  • DIETARY
  • DIETARY-FAT INTAKE
  • Design
  • EATING BEHAVIORS
  • ENERGY
  • ENERGY-INTAKE
  • HEIGHT
  • INDEX
  • INDEXES
  • INGESTION
  • LOCUS
  • MASS INDEX
  • MEAL
  • MODEL
  • NUTRIENT
  • NUTRITION
  • OBESITY RISK
  • PPAR-GAMMA
  • PPARG gene variants
  • PREFERENCE
  • PRO12ALA POLYMORPHISM
  • SHORT-TERM
  • STYLE
  • TERM
  • TIME
  • WEIGHT
  • YOUNG
  • YOUNG-CHILDREN
  • adiposity
  • body mass index
  • body weight
  • child
  • children
  • eating
  • eating behavior
  • energy compensation
  • energy intake
  • feeding
  • feeding style
  • human
  • intake
  • obesity
  • preferences
  • preload
  • young children

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Authors

  • J E Cecil

  • C N A Palmer

  • B Fischer

  • P Watt

  • D J Wallis

  • I Murrie

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