We report the surface roughness analysis of the lunar highlands for the baseline range 0.15–100 km. We use the Median Differential Slope αm to investigate the scale dependency of the roughness and derive the global αm distribution from SELENE Laser Altimeter and Terrain Camera data. While αm(l) versus baseline l (km) plots vary among different highland types, all highlands commonly show a peak at 3–30 km. The Pre-Nectarian surface shows a relatively large αm(20–30 km). Our analysis is supported by the simulation of synthetic surface crateringmodels and crater statistics. In our simulation, a peak of αm(30 km) is successfully reproduced. The actual crater density shows good correlation with an empirical roughness indicator. However, a large part of the Nectarian surface shows a peak at 6–9km baseline. This peak may be caused by secondary craters and ejecta deposit textures from the Nectarian system basins.
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