Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is attributed to a combination of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In recent years, there has also been an increasing recognition of a very high prevalence of cardiovascular calcification in the ESRD population, including in patients receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Numerous observational cohort studies have demonstrated the prognostic importance of cardiovascular calcifications in these patients. The mechanisms are not completely understood, but are likely multifactorial. The present article reviews the prevalence, clinical course, prognostic significance, and some contributing factors for vascular and valvular calcification in ESRD patients, including patients receiving PD therapy.
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