Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent {anti-Stokes} {Raman} scattering microscopy

  • Volkmer A
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For noninvasive characterization of chemical species or
biological components within a complex heterogeneous system, their
intrinsic molecular vibrational properties can be used in contrast
mechanisms in optical microscopy. A series of recent advances have
made coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy a
powerful technique that allows vibrational imaging with high
sensitivity, high spectral resolution and three-dimensional
sectioning capability. In this review, we discuss theoretical and
experimental aspects of CARS microscopy in a collinear excitation
beam geometry. Particular attention is given to the underlying
physical principles behind the new features of CARS signal
generation under tight focusing conditions. We provide a brief
overview of the instrumentation of CARS microscopy and its
experimental characterization by means of imaging of model systems
and live unstained cells. CARS microscopy offers the possibility
of spatially resolved vibrational spectroscopy, providing chemical
and physical structure information of molecular specimens on the
sub-micrometre length scale. We review multiplex CARS
microspectroscopy allowing fast acquisition of frequency-resolved
CARS spectra, time-resolved CARS microspectroscopy recording
ultrafast Raman free induction decays and CARS correlation
spectroscopy probing dynamical processes with chemical

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  • A Volkmer

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