A visual nonlinearity fed by single cones

  • Macleod D
  • Williams D
  • Makous W
  • 42


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 147


    Citations of this article.


An intensive nonlinearity in the visual system can produce distortion products, or difference frequency gratings, when observers view two high contrast, high spatial frequency interference fringes of slightly different frequency or orientation added together at the retina. These distortion products are visible even when the two fringes imaged on the retina are above the resolution limit. Our experiments take advantage of this nonlinearity to measure the spatial filtering in the visual system following the formation of the retinal image, but preceding the site of the nonlinearity. The point spread function corresponding to this spatial filter is so small that it can be entirely explained by light integration within the apertures of foveal and parafoveal cones. The small size of this point spread function implies that (1) laser interferometry avoids contrast losses inherent in the eye's optics at spatial frequencies as high as 130 c/deg, (2) retinal scatter causes negligible image degradation in the fovea and parafoveal retina, (3) eye movements have little or no effect on contrast sensitivity to the distortion product and (4) that there is no neural spatial summation in the visual system prior to the site of the nonlinearity. Distortion products could also be observed when a bright interference fringe was briefly flashed on the fovea and a test interference fringe was viewed through the resulting afterimage. Measurements of the point spread function at stages in the visual system that precede the generation of this distortion product were similar to those obtained with simultaneous presentation of the two fringes, implying that the aftereffect of light adaptation is extremely local, no larger than the dimensions of single cones. © 1992.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Cones
  • Optics
  • Photoreceptors
  • Resolution

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Donald I.A. Macleod

  • David R. Williams

  • Walter Makous

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free