X-ray crystal structures of three species related to the oxidative half of the reaction of the copper-containing quinoprotein amine oxidase from Escherichia coli have been determined. Crystals were freeze-trapped either anaerobically or aerobically after exposure to substrate, and structures were determined to resolutions between 2.1 and 2.4 angstroms. The oxidation state of the quinone cofactor was investigated by single-crystal spectrophotometry. The structures reveal the site of bound dioxygen and the proton transfer pathways involved in oxygen reduction. The quinone cofactor is regenerated from the iminoquinone intermediate by hydrolysis involving Asp383, the catalytic base in the reductive half-reaction. Product aldehyde inhibits the hydrolysis, making release of product the rate-determining step of the reaction in the crystal.
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