Recent years have witnessed a substantial increase in the number of seric determinations of vitamin D, in a worldwide basis. At Hospital das Clínicas of Faculdade de Medicina of Universidade de São Paulo that increase reached 700% over the last four years. Nevertheless there are many controversies on the literature about the role of vitamin D in conditions unrelated to the musculoskeletal system. In this study the metabolism, sources and actions of vitamin D on the body are reviewed. Observational studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews and metanalysis which focused on the relationship between the vitamin and conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and falls were searched on the literature, analyzed and discussed. Results are presented as quiz and answer, tables and a figure. The role of vitamin D on the above-mentioned conditions is discussed, and the controversial issues stressed. © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
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