In vitro anti-HIV activity of five selected South African medicinal plant extracts

  • Klos M
  • van de Venter M
  • Milne P
 et al. 
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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Five South African medicinal plants, Bulbine alooides (L.) Willd. (Asphodelaceae), Crinum macowani Baker (Amaryllidaceae), Hypoxis sobolifera var. sobolifera (Jacq.) Nel (Hypoxidaceae), Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) and Tulbaghia violacea Harv (Liliaceae) used for the treatment of various ailments, including infectious diseases, were screened for activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous and ethanol extracts were tested for inhibitory activity in HIV-1 infected CEM.NK(R)-CCR5 cells, and against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and HIV-1 protease (PR). RESULTS: In CEM.NK(R)-CCR5 cells, ethanol extracts of L. leonurus inhibited HIV-1 significantly (33% reduction in HIV-1 p24, P/=50%) was shown for extracts of B. alooides (aqueous and ethanol), H. sobolifera (aqueous and ethanol) and L. leonurus (aqueous), but inhibitory activity was lost upon dereplication for removal of non-specific tannins/polysaccharides. HIV-1 PR inhibition was observed for extracts of H. sobolifera (aqueous), B. alooides (aqueous and ethanol) and L. leonurus (ethanol). Only ethanolic extracts of B. alooides and L. leonurus retained HIV-1 PR inhibition after dereplication with IC(50) of 94mug/ml and 120mug/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: The dereplicated ethanolic extracts of L. leonurus and B. alooides showed the greatest anti-HIV potential in this study through inhibition of HIV-1 PR.

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  • M Klos

  • M van de Venter

  • P J Milne

  • H N Traore

  • D Meyer

  • V Oosthuizen

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