The Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis) imitated calls of seven species of birds (models) at six localities in northeastern Argentina. The models occurred in the same hab-itats. At one site 92% of 61 tape recorded calls were imitations. Calls of hawks, alarm calls, and mobbing calls were frequently copied. Both sexes imitated year round. Epaulet Orioles reacted to playbacks of conspecifics, even those from distant localities. Models, however, were seldom attracted to playbacks and/or to the vocalizing orioles. The available data is consistent with the idea that mimicry is used as an "interspecific threat" directed to potential predators.
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