Spray flow calculations are usually based upon equations that have been developed by averaging droplet properties locally throughout the flow field. Presently, standard procedure for LES (large-eddy simulations) is to average these averaged equations once again to filter the short-length-scale fluctuations. In this paper, the theoretical foundations for the averaged spray equations are examined; then the volume-averaging process for LES and the volume-averaging process for two-phase flows are unified for the analysis of turbulent, two-phase flows. Comments are provided on the relationship between the averaging volume and the computational-cell volume. This paper provides generality to the weighting-function choice in the averaging process and precision to the definition of the volume over which the averaging is performed. New flux terms that result from the averaging process and appear in the governing averaged partial differential equations are identified and their modelling is discussed. Situations are identified where sufficient stratification of properties on the scale smaller than the averaging volume leads to the significance of these quantities. Evolution equations for averaged entropy and averaged vorticity are developed. The relationship amongst the curl of the average gas-phase velocity, the average of the gas-phase-velocity curl, and the rotation of the discrete droplets or particles is established. The needs and challenges for sub-grid modelling to account for small-vortex/droplet interactions are presented. Applications to spray combustion are discussed. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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