• Hazards of the feed material, including self-heating potential and dust hazards (e.g. biomass in the form of wood chips). • Features relevant to process safety which are common to waste to energy plants which convert carbon-based materials into a product gas. - This includes gasification of biomass and municipal solid waste, and also pyrolysis. - An overview of the typical main unit operations within these plants is given, with relevance to process safety. • Critical process safety issues are highlighted, focussing on gasification type waste- to-energy plants - There is fire and explosion risk potential, due to the presence of highly flammable gases (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). - Toxic gas release has potentially serious consequences due to the presence of large quantities of carbon monoxide. • Distinctive features of gasification plants and related technical safety challenges in the development of a basis of safety. - Emergency venting is discussed, including pressure relief philosophy and explosion venting. - Flare system function and features. - Start-up and shutdown aspects, including emergency shutdown.
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