The fast growing demand for clean, fresh water—coupled with the need to protect and enhance the environment—has made many areas of the United States and the rest of the world vulnerable to water shortages for various human uses. As they interact with the electricity industry, these uses encompass agricultural irrigation, thermoelectric generation, municipal water/wastewater treatment and distribution, and industrial processes. The dependency of electricity supply and demand on water availability can impede societal and economic sustainability, adversely affect the future growth of electric demand, cause shortages in current electric supplies, and impact electric grid topology planning.
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