The cardiovascular system in mammals follows various optimization criteria covering the heart, the vascular network, and the coupling of the two. Through a simple dimensional analysis we arrived at a non-dimensional number (wave condition number) that can predict the optimum wave state in which the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile power (LV workload) is minimized in a mammalian cardiovascular system. This number is also universal among all mammals independent of animal size maintaining a value of around 0.1. By utilizing a unique in vitro model of human aorta, we tested our hypothesis against a wide range of aortic compliance (pulse wave velocity). We concluded that the optimum value of the wave condition number remains to be around 0.1 for a wide range of aorta compliance that we could simulate in our in-vitro system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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