A study of several populations of the West Palaearctic endemic Alona azorica Frenzel & Alonso, 1988 reveals the existence of a sibling-species. Alona azorica s. str. is confined to the Azores and the Atlantic part of West Iberia; Alona anastasia sp. nov. inhabits temporary ponds in Mediterranean Iberia and other West Mediterranean regions. It differs by size, by the morphology of the head shield and head pores, and by the shape of the male postabdomen. Both species belong to the pulchella-group of Alona s. lato. Alona anastasia sp. nov. population dynamics and seasonal variation in body size in the province of Valencia (Spain) are also studied.
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