European mammal fauna is not very rich, with only 4.19% of the world's mammalian species diversity. Here as anywhere else, rodents probably play one of the most significant parts in terms of zoonosis risks, Chiroptera are still to be studied but could become more and more important. Carnivores were recently involved with rabies, Ungulates (order Artiodactyla) could play a role in the epidemiology of some zoonoses, as well as major livestock diseases and, recently, a new Brucella strain was isolated from sea mammals. The identification of new diseases means mainly a better knowledge of natural cycles. An important point should be a better control of introducing mammals, whatever the reasons, as this always means new pathogens and new sanitary risks. The real impact of these sanitary risks is also linked to their behaviour within ecosystems, which is difficult to anticipate. Ecological and epidemiological tools (like modelling and systematic studies) may help to give a better understanding of these diseases, and then a better control. © 2001 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS.
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