An integrated system of models, WINDA, is presented for calculating the stand-wise probabilities of wind damage, uprooting and breakage of trees within a landscape. The calculations are made point-wise at exposed stand edges. WINDA integrates a modified version of the dose/response model HWIND [Can. J. For. Res. 29 (1999) 647], the airflow model WASP [Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WASP), Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark], and a component for calculating the zero-plane displacement and surface roughness and uses a GIS for geographical computations. The likelihood of damage is calculated using extreme value theory. WINDA was able to predict damage that compared well with observed extensive damage within 6.7 km2large landscape in southern Sweden. Output from the system of models was most sensitive to modifications in the input variables tree height and diameter at breast height and to the internal parameter critical friction velocity. The mechanistic modelling approach makes WINDA useful for evaluating effects on the probability of wind damage of silvicultural treatments and forestry activities as well as of a changed climate. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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