Determination of beta-lactams in milk using a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor.
Two surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assays for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk are reported. The assays are based on the enzymatic activity of a carboxypeptidase converting a 3-peptide into a 2-peptide, a reaction that is inhibited in the presence of beta-lactams. Antibodies were used to measure either the amount of formed enzymatic product or the amount of remaining enzymatic substrate. Both assays detected different beta-lactams at or below European maximum residue limits (MRLs), and the detection limit for penicillin G was 1.2 microg/kg and 1.5 microg/kg for the 2- and 3-peptide assays, respectively. The precision (CV) was < 5%, both within and between assays at the penicillin G MRL (4 microg/kg). The biosensor results obtained upon analysis of incurred milk samples were compared with results obtained by liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the method agreements were, in general, good.