The effectiveness of NGO campaigning: lessons from practice.
This article looks at the lessons learned in reviewing two long-running international campaigns, one to promote breast-feeding in Ghana, and the other against the use of child labor in the carpet industry in India. In particular, it focuses on understanding the nature of campaigns and what makes them effective. It asserts that campaigns are not linear or mechanistic, but need to be understood as passing through various stages and requiring different kinds of action at different levels and at different times. The variety of work and skills thus required makes it vital that the various organizations involved collaborate with each other. In particular, grassroots mobilization has a role that is often forgotten in bringing about sustained policy change.