Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.
Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were most frequently used in the analysis of genetic diversity and genome evolution of common carp. Using microsatellites showed that the genome evolution in common carp exhibited two waves of rearrangements: one whole-genome duplication (12-16 million years ago) and a more recent wave of segmental duplications occurring between 2.3 and 6.8 million years ago. The genome duplication event has resulted in tetraploidy since the common carp currently harbors a substantial portion of duplicated loci in its genome and twice the number of chromosomes (n = 100-104) of most other cyprinid fishes. The variation in domesticated carp populations is significantly less than that in wild populations, which probably arises from the loss of variation due to founder effects and genetic drift. Genetic differentiation between the European carp C.c. carpio and Asian carp C.c. haematopterus is clearly evident. In Asia, two carp subspecies, C.c. haematopterus and C.c. varidivlaceus, seem to be also genetically distinct.