Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer: Observations of dark and bright band phenomena
Multi-wavelength lidar measurements in the melt- ing layer revealing the presence of dark and bright bands have been performed by the University of BASILicata Ra- man lidar system (BASIL) during a stratiform rain event. Si- multaneously radar measurements have been also performed from the same site by the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (35.5 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual- polarization micro rain radar (24.15GHz) and the Univer- sity of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Measure- ments from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and dis- cussed in this paper for a specific case study on 23 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Pre- cipitation Study (COPS). Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on- board the ATR42 SAFIRE. Measurements and model results are found to confirm and support the conceptual microphys- ical/scattering model elaborated by Sassen et al. (2005).