Listening Strategy Use and Linguistic Patterns in Listening Comprehension by EFL Learners
This study mainly focused on investigating listening strategy uses at different proficiency levels for different linguistic patterns. Three main questions were examined in regards to Taiwanese listeners of English as a foreign language (EFL): (1) For listeners with different proficiency levels, which pattern may result in a higher level of listening comprehension when the negative, functional, and contrary-to-fact statements are used? (2) Are there any significant differences between item type and proficiency level? (3) What are the differences and frequency in listening strategy use reported by individual listeners? To explore the above issues, a quantitative research method was applied, including a self-perceived survey, a t-test technique, and an analysis of variance. Results of this study demonstrate that listeners with both advanced and beginning proficiency levels yielded higher scores on contrary-to-fact statements, followed by functional expression and then negative expression. Advanced proficiency listeners mostly used the combination of various strategies when listening to contrary-to-fact statements, while beginning-level listeners heavily employed memory strategies when listening to negative expression. Implications for EFL educators to recognize the directions of instructional practices for enhancing listening comprehension are presented.