Miniaturization: an overview of biotechnologies for monitoring the physiology and pathophysiology of rodent animal models.
Recent advances in bioengineering technologies have made it possible to collect high-quality reproducible data quantitatively in a wide range of laboratory animal species, including rodents. Several of these technologies are incorporated into a plan called Miniaturization, which aims to design, develop, and maintain rodent animal models to study the pathophysiology and therapy of human diseases. Laser Doppler flowmetry, digital sonomicrometry, bioelectrical impedance, and microdialysis are some of the most widely used methods under the plan because they cause minimal pain and distress, reduce the number of animals used in biomedical research, and allow chronic, nonterminal assessment of physiological parameters in rodents. An overview of each of these technologies and their major applications in rodents used for biomedical research is provided.