Modeling of very low frequency ({VLF}) radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the {GEANT}4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistry

by S Palit, T Basak, S K Mondal, S Pal, S K Chakrabarti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. ()


X-ray photons emitted during solar flares cause ionization in the lower ionosphere ({\textasciitilde}60 to 100 km) in excess of what is expected to occur due to a quiet sun. Very low frequency ({VLF}) radio wave signals reflected from the D-region of the ionosphere are affected by this excess ionization. In this paper, we reproduce the deviation in {VLF} signal strength during solar flares by numerical modeling. We use {GEANT}4 Monte Carlo simulation code to compute the rate of ionization due to a M-class flare and a X-class flare. The output of the simulation is then used in a simplified ionospheric chemistry model to calculate the time variation of electron density at different altitudes in the D-region of the ionosphere. The resulting electron density variation profile is then self-consistently used in the {LWPC} code to obtain the time variation of the change in {VLF} signal. We did the modeling of the {VLF} signal along the {NWC} (Australia) to {IERC}/{ICSP} (India) propagation path and compared the results with observations. The agreement is found to be very satisfactory.

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