Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa.

by Gaetan Gaëtan Gaetan Borgonie, Antonio García-Moyano, Derek Litthauer, Wim Bert, Armand Bester, Esta Van Heerden, Christelle Möller, Mariana Erasmus, Tullis C. Onstott, E A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Gaetan Gaëtan Gaetan Borgonie, Borja Linage-Alvarez, Abidemi Ojo, Steven Shivambu, Olukayode Kuloyo, Errol D. Cason, Sihle Maphanga, Jan G. Vermeulen, Derek Litthauer, Colin Ralston, Tullis C. Onstott, Barbara Sherwood-Lollar, Esta Van Heerden, Dylan Chivian, Eoin L Brodie, Eric J Alm, David E Culley, Paramvir S Dehal, Todd Z Desantis, Thomas M Gihring, Alla Lapidus, Li-hung Lin, Stephen R Lowry, Duane P Moser, Paul M Richardson, Gordon Southam, Greg Wanger, Lisa M Pratt, Gary L Andersen show all authors
Nature ()
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Abstract

Microbiological, molecular biological, and radioisotopic studies suggest that active and complex microbial communities exist in the deep layers of the subsurface biosphere. This review discusses only one group of such communities, i.e., those developing at high (above 60 degrees C temperatures). Oil wells, subsurface water reservoirs (e.g., the Great Artesian Basin in Australia), deep mines (in South Africa), and high-temperature horizons below the seafloor in the areas of underwater volcanic activity contain the best-studied high-temperature subsurface ecosystems. These microbial communities differ considerably from one another in biodiversity, initial energy substrate, and major microbiological processes. However, before they can be considered as equivalents of the Earth's primordial ecosystems, it is necessary to demonstrate that they are energetically independent of the modern biosphere.

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