A simulation of the global distribution and radiative forcing of soil dust aerosols at the Last Glacial Maximum
In this study an integrated simulation of the global distribution and the radiative forcing of soil dust aerosols at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is performed with an aerosol climate model, SPRINTARS. It is compared with another simulation for the present climate condition. The global total emission flux of soil dust aerosols at the LGM is simulated to be about 2.4 times as large as that in the present climate, and the simulated deposition flux is in general agreement with estimations from ice core and marine sediment samplings though it appears to be underestimated over the Antarctic. The calculated direct radiative forcings of soil dust aerosols at the LGM is close to zero at the tropopause and −0.4 W m−2 at the surface. These radiative forcings are about twice as large as those in the present climate. SPRINTARS also includes the microphysical parameterizations of the cloud-aerosol interaction both for liquid water and ice crystals, which affect the radiation budget. The positive radiative forcing from the indirect effect of soil dust aerosols is mainly caused by their properties to act as ice nuclei. This effect is simulated to be smaller (−0.9 W m−2) at the LGM than in the present. It is suggested that atmospheric dust might contribute to the cold climate during the glacial periods both through the direct and indirect effects, relative to the interglacial periods.