Standardization of game based learning design
The standardization of the design of learning games is a contradictory topic: The existence of a rich variety of domains and applications is in conflict with the desire for unification that would result in improved reusability, interoperability and reduction of design complexity. In this paper, we describe the use of the ICOPER Reference Model (IRM) specification as foundation layer for the design of digital learning games. This reference model incorporates design and development processes as well as standards such as IMS Learning Design, a framework for presenting content according to logical rules like conditions and properties. The paper reports about exemplary learning games that make use of e-learning standards the IRM consists of, and explains about potential and limitations both from the game and e-learning design perspective, resulting in suggestions how to close missing links. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.