Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.

by River Ahta, Kakweiken Viner, Wakeman Kingcome, Ahnuhati Lull, L. Bardsley, Trevor J C Beebee, Review Article, François Balloux, Nicolas Lugon-Moulin, Aurélie Aubry, Emeline Bécart, John Davenport, Deirdre Lynn, Ferdia Marnell, Mark Emmerson, Helle Tessand Baalsrud, Bernt-Erik Saether, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Ane Marlene Myhre, Thor Harald Ringsby, Henrik Pärn, Henrik Jensen, Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg, Arnaud Estoup, Miguel Tejedo, Thomas F Turner, Megan J Osborne, Gregory R Moyer, Melissa a Benavides, Dominique Alò, Mirjam S. van de Vliet, Trevor J C Beebee, Onno E. Diekmann, Robin S. Waples, Oscar Gaggiotti, Mingwang Zhang, Guohua Yu, Mingxian Yang, Yan Li, Jun Wei, Huailiang Xu, Yongfang Yao, Linjie Wang, Xinquan Zhang, Dingqi Rao, Junxing Yang, Peng Zhang, Dan Liang, Rong Li Mao, David M. Hillis, David B. Wake, David C. Cannatella, Manoir Huisbois, Laboratoire Evolution, Björn Rogell, Martin Eklund, Hanna Thörngren, Anssi Laurila, Jacob Höglund, Stefan Palm, Anssi Laurila, Jacob Höglund, Valentina Rovelli, Ettore Randi, Francesca Davoli, Daniele Macale, Marco Alberto Bologna, Leonardo Vignoli, Roma Tre, Viale Marconi, Dipartimento Scienze, Graham Rowe, Trevor J C Beebee, Terry Burke, Toni Safner, Claude Miaud, Oscar Gaggiotti, Samuel Decout, Delphine Rioux, Stéphanie Zundel, Stéphanie Manel, Jason P. Sexton, Patrick J. McIntyre, Amy L. Angert, Kevin J. Rice, M. Alex Smith, David M. Green, Matthias Stöck, Craig Moritz, Michael Hickerson, Daniel Frynta, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Valery Eremchenko, J. Robert Macey, Theodore J. Papenfuss, David B. Wake, Simon N Stuart, Janice S Chanson, Neil a Cox, Bruce E Young, Ana S L Rodrigues, Debra L Fischman, Robert W Waller, Miguel Tejedo, D E S Habitats Du, Rapaud Commun, U F O Bufo, E T Du, Rapaud Calamite, Pidalea Calamita, Dans Un, J. Garcia-Porta, S. N. Litvinchuk, P. a. Crochet, a. Romano, P. H. Geniez, M. Lo-Valvo, P. Lymberakis, S. Carranza, Gregory B Pauly, David M. Hillis, David C. Cannatella, Giulia Pisa, Valerio Orioli, Giulia Spilotros, Elena Fabbri, Ettore Randi, Luciano Bani, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Robert S Boyd, Tanner B Harris, Anonymus, Matthias Stöck, Alessandra Sicilia, Natalia M Belfiore, David Buckley, Sabrina Lo Brutto, Mario Lo Valvo, Marco Arculeo, Iker Irisarri, Diego San Mauro, Federico Abascal, Annemarie Ohler, Miguel Vences, Rafael Zardoya, Eric Lombaert, Arnaud Estoup, Benoît Facon, B. Joubard, J. C. Grégoire, a. Jannin, a. Blin, Thomas Guillemaud, Winsor H. Lowe, Mark a. McPeek, Steven J. Micheletti, Andrew Storfer, Leffondre Adeline, Ruthven Museums Building, Ann Arbor, Alain Dubois, Roger Bour, Arnaud Estoup, Thomas Guillemaud, Richard Frankham, Darrel R Frost, Taran Grant, Julián Faivovich, Raoul H Bain, Alexander Haas, Célio F B Haddad, Rafael O D E Sá, Alan Channing, Stephen C Donnellan, Christopher J Raxworthy, A Campbell, Boris L Blotto, Paul Moler, Robert C Drewes, A Ronald, John D Lynch, David M. Green, Ward C Wheeler, Darrel R Frost, Taran Grant, L I O F B Haddad, Raoul H Bain, Alexander Haas, Alan Channing, Mark Wilkinson, Rafael O D E Sa, N. Galtier, B. Nabholz, S. GlÉmin, G. D D Hurst, Mario García-París, Daniel R. Buchholz, Gabriela Parra-Olea, Anna M. Goebel, Tom a. Ranker, Paul Stephen Corn, Richard G. Olmstead, J A N Christian Habel, Frank E Zachos, Leonardo Dapporto, Dennis Rödder, U T E Radespiel, Aurélien Tellier, Thomas Schmitt, T B Hayes, P Falso, S Gallipeau, M Stice, Jacob Höglund, Åsa Wengström, Björn Rogell, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht show all authors
Molecular Ecology ()
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Abstract

Previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among Nearctic toads (Bufonidae) and their congeners suggest contradictory biogeographic histories. These hypotheses argue that the Nearctic Bufo are: (1) a polyphyletic assemblage resulting from multiple colonizations from Africa; (2) a paraphyletic assemblage resulting from a single colonization event from South America with subsequent dispersal into Eurasia; or (3) a monophyletic group derived from the Neotropics. We obtained approximately 2.5 kb of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for the 12S, 16S, and intervening valine tRNA gene from 82 individuals representing 56 species and used parametric bootstrapping to test hypotheses of the biogeographic history of the Nearctic Bufo. We find that the Nearctic species of Bufo are monophyletic and nested within a large clade of New World Bufo to the exclusion of Eurasian and African taxa. This suggests that Nearctic Bufo result from a single colonization from the Neotropics. More generally, we demonstrate the utility of parametric bootstrapping for testing alternative biogeographic hypotheses. Through parametric bootstrapping, we refute several previously published biogeographic hypotheses regarding Bufo. These previous studies may have been influenced by homoplasy in osteological characters. Given the Neotropical origin for Nearctic Bufo, we examine current distributional patterns to assess whether the Nearctic-Neotropical boundary is a broad transition zone or a narrow boundary. We also survey fossil and paleogeographic evidence to examine potential Tertiary and Cretaceous dispersal routes, including the Paleocene Isthmian Link, the Antillean and Aves Ridges, and the current Central American Land Bridge, that may have allowed colonization of the Nearctic.

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