Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

by Tony J Ward, Garon C Smith, Siye Wei, Guofeng Shen, Yanyan J M L Yangmei Zhang, Miao Xue, Han Xie, Po-Hsiung Pengchuan Lin, Yuanchen Chen, Xuemei Xinming Xilong Xin Wang, Shu Tao, Roger N Westerholm, Jacob Almen, Hang Li, J Ulf Rannug, Karl Erik Egebaeck, Kerstin Graegg, S Weimer, C Mohr, R Richter, J Keller, M Mohr, A S H Prévôt, U Baltensperger, Stephen J White, Ian M Jamie, Dennys E Angove, A S Willoughby, A S Wozniak, P G Hatcher, S C Gurganus, Shaowei Wu, Furong Deng, Hongying Wei, Masayuki Shima, Jing Huang, Haibo Lv, Yu Hao, Chanjuan Zheng, Yu Qin, Xiuling Lu, Xinbiao Guo, K P Wyche, A C Ryan, C N Hewitt, M R Alfarra, G McFiggans, T Carr, P S Monks, K L Smallbone, G Capes, J F Hamilton, T A M Pugh, A R MacKenzie, Mingjie Xie, Ricardo Piedrahita, Steven J Dutton, Jana B Milford, Joshua G Hemann, Jennifer L Peel, Shelly L Miller, Sun-Young Kim, Sverre Vedal, Lianne Sheppard, Michael P Hannigan, Jianzhong Xu, Q Q Zhang, M Chen, X Ge, Jiawen Ren, Dahe Qin, L Xing, T M Fu, J J Cao, Suk-Jo C Lee, G H Wang, K F Ho, M C Cheng, C F You, T J T Wang, Zebin Zhen Wang, Guangming Yu, Xiang Qin, S S Yamamoto, R Phalkey, A A Malik, Aileen Yang, Aleksandra Jedynska, Bryan Hellack, Ingeborg M Kooter, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Flemming R Cassee, Nicole A H Janssen, Liming Yang, Duc Minh Nguyen, Shiguo Jia, Jeffrey S Reid, Liya E Yu, Jung-Moon Yoo, Yu-Ri Lee, Dongchul Kim, Myeong-Jae Jeong, William R Stockwell, Prasun K Kundu, Soo-Min Oh, Dong-Bin Shin, K E Yttri, C Dye, G Kiss, C Lund Myhre, S Eckhardt, M Fiebig, D Hirdman, J Ström, Z Klimont, A Stohl, Jianzhen Yu, Robert J Griffin, David R Cocker, Richard C Flagan, John H Seinfeld, Pierrette Blanchard, Xu Yue, Loretta J Mickley, Jennifer A Logan, Jed O Kaplan, Li-wen Zhang, Xi Chen, Xiao-dan Xue, Min Sun, Bin Han, Chang-ping Li, Jing Ma, Hao X Yu, Zeng-rong Sun, Li-jun Zhao, Bao-xin Zhao, Ya-min Liu, Jie Jianmin Chen, Peizhong Peter Wang, Zhi-peng Bai, Nai-jun Tang, T Zhang, M Claeys, H Cachier, S P Dong, W Wang, W Maenhaut, X D Liu, Wen-Li Z Zhang, Yu Du, Miao-Miao Zhai, Qi Shang, Xiaoye Xiaolin Y L Zhang, Ruizhong Rao, Yinbo Huang, Mao Mao, Matthew J Berg, Wenbo Sun, L L Tang, Y L Sun, D Liu, W Qin, H L Zhang, H C Zhou, P Zotter, N Perron, L Wacker, S Szidat, J Y Sun, G Y Hu, X J Shen, Ying Yaqiang Q Wang, D Z Wang, Yongjing Zhao, D F Zhao, M Kaminski, P Schlag, H Fuchs, I H Acir, B Bohn, R Häseler, A Kiendler-Scharr, F Rohrer, R Tillmann, Meng J Wang, R Wegener, J Wildt, A Wahner, T F Mentel, P S Zhao, F Dong, D He, X J Zhao, Q Yao, Hua Y Liu, R Zhao, E L Mungall, A K Y Lee, D Aljawhary, J P D Abbatt, Steven S Cliff, Anthony S Wexler, Wasim Javed, Kevin Perry, Yuee Pan, Frank M Mitloehner, G Zhi, Y Feng, S Xiong, J J Li, G Zhang, G Sheng, J Fu, B L Zhuang, S Li, J J Deng, C Q Yin, J L Zhu, Hong Zhuang, Chak K Chan, Ming Fang, V G Ciobanu, I El-Haddad, M Macchia, K R Daellenbach, G A Salazar, R J Huang, C Hueglin, A Piazzalunga, P Fermo, M Schwikowski, S G Aggarwal, K Kawamura, G S Umarji, E Tachibana, R S Patil, P K Gupta, Charbel Afif, Carine Chélala, Agnès Borbon, Maher Abboud, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gérard, Wehbeh Farah, Corinne Jambert, Rita Zaarour, Nada Badaro Saliba, PascalE Perros, Toufic Rizk, Mariana Achad, María Laura López, Sergio Ceppi, Gustavo G Palancar, Tirao Germán, Beatriz M Toselli, Mahmoud Abu-Allaban, Alan W Gertler, Douglas H Lowenthal, Gabriela A Abril, Eduardo D Wannaz, Ana C Mateos, María L Pignata, Olawale Emmanuel Abiye, Imoh B Obioh, Godwin C Ezeh, M Arhami, M C Minguillón, A Polidori, J J Schauer, R J Delfino, C Sioutas, M Aragón, F Borrull, R M Marcé, B Aouizerats, G R van der Werf, R Balasubramanian, R Betha, Jessica Antonel, Zohir Chowdhury, M O Andreae, D Rosenfeld, T W Andreae, H Annegarn, J Beer, P Le Canut, W Elbert, I Salma, F G Wienhold, T Zenker, Travis Ancelet, Perry K Davy, William J Trompetter, Andreas Markwitz, David C Weatherburn, Fulvio Amato, Hugo A C Denier van der Gon, Robert Gehrig, Mats Gustafsson, Wolfgang Hafner, Roy M Harrison, Magdalena Jozwicka, Frank J Kelly, Teresa Moreno, Andre S H Prevot, Martijn Schaap, Jordi Sunyer, Xavier Querol, M Pandolfi, A Alastuey, A Lozano, J Contreras González, J de la Rosa, A M Sánchez de la Campa, Célia Alves, Teresa Nunes, Ana Vicente, Cátia Gonçalves, Margarita Evtyugina, Telma Marques, Casimiro A Pio, Frieda Bate-Epey, S M Almeida, M C Freitas, M A Reis, M A Trancoso, Mohammed S Alam, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Christopher Stark, W Ait-Helal, S Sauvage, J A de Gouw, A Colomb, V Gros, F Freutel, M Crippa, M Beekmann, J F Doussin, R Durand-Jolibois, I Fronval, N Grand, T Leonardis, M Lopez, V Michoud, K Miet, S Perrier, J Schneider, G Siour, P Zapf, N Locoge, Masahide Aikawa, Takatoshi Hiraki, Nobutaka Tomoyose, Tsuyoshi Ohizumi, Izumi Noguchi, Kentaro Murano, Hitoshi Mukai, L Ahlm, K M Shakya, L M Russell, J C Schroder, J P S Wong, S J Sjostedt, K L Hayden, J Liggio, J J B Wentzell, H A Wiebe, C Mihele, W R Leaitch, A M Macdonald, Dayana Milena Agudelo-Castañeda, Elba Calesso Teixeira, Raymond F Hamilton Jr, Roy W Dixon, Michael Paulsen, Christopher D Simpson, Aryeh Wanger, Mordechai Peleg, Geula Sharf, Yitzhak Mahrer, Uri Dayan, George Kallos, Vassiliki Kotroni, Konstantinos Lagouvardos, Maria Varinou, Anastasios Papadopoulos, Menachem Luria, Guangshui Na, Xindong Ma, Xiaodan Fang, Linke Ge, Hui Gao, Ziwei Yao, Guoshun Zhuang, Shuang Chen, Zhisheng An, Aihua Zheng, K He, L Chai, Tiantao Cheng, Renyi Zhang, Rob Beelen, Massimo Stafoggia, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer, Danny Houthuijs, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Gudrun Weinmayr, Paolo Vineis, Wei W Xun, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Evangelia Samoli, Tiina Laatikainen, Timo Lanki, Anu W Turunen, Bente Oftedal, Per Schwarze, Geir Aamodt, Johanna Penell, Ulf De Faire, Michal Korek, Karin Leander, Göran Pershagen, Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Marloes Eeftens, Michiel L Bots, Kees Meliefste, Ursula Krämer, Joachim Heinrich, Dorothea Sugiri, Timothy Key, Kees de Hoogh, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters, Josef Cyrys, Andrea Jaensch, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Ming-Yi Tsai, Harish Phuleria, Alex Ineichen, Nino Künzli, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Emmanuel Schaffner, Alice Vilier, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Christophe Declerq, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Alessandro Marcon, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Michail Katsoulis, Antonia Trichopoulou, Menno Keuken, Jaakko Kukkonen, Ranjeet S Sokhi, Klea Katsouyanni, Jizhi Jia-Lin Wang, Yuanqin Yang, Yi Li, Guo Deng, L Wang, S Tong, G S Toloo, W Yu, Clock Chew, Chih-Yuan Chih-Chung Chang, Wei-Cheng Liao, Shih-Chun Candice Lung, Wei-Nai Chen, Po-Ju Lee, Honglei Wang, Bin Zhu, Lijuan Shen, Junlin An, Yan Yin, Hanqing Kang, J Tao, Y Q Ren, F Wu, C L Cheng, J J Meng, Y T Cheng, S X Liu show all authors
Atmospheric Environment ()
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Abstract

The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibility < 2 km) and moderate (2 km ≤ visibility < 3 km) haze, mainly distributed in winter and spring. The mean particle number concentration was about 17,000 cm− 3 in haze, more than 2 times that in clean days. The greatest increase of particle number concentration was in 0.5–1 μm and 1–10 μm size fractions during haze events, about 17.78 times and 8.78 times those of clean days. The largest increase of particle number concentration was within 50–100 nm and 100–200 nm fractions during photochemical smog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15 μm3/cm3 and 949, 649, 206 μm2/cm3, respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50 nm decreased, but the particles of 50–200 nm and 0.5–1 μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4+, SO42 − and NO3− increased greatly, followed by Na+, K+, Ca2 + and Cl−. These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes.

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