Ultrasound Imaging of the Bull Reproductive Tract: An Important Field of Expertise for Veterinarians
Diagnosing male reproductive system pathologies can often be frustrating because of the challenge involved in precisely determining their site, severity, and prognosis. The introduction of complementary ultrasonographic examination enables clinicians to address these important questions. This procedure should be performed not only on bulls destined to artificial insemination, but on all farm bulls. The examination is easy to perform with a versatile ultrasonographic unit designed for bovine theriogenology. To recognize abnormal tissues, however, the operator must have an excellent knowledge of the ultrasonographic anatomy of the reproductive system. This article discusses the basis of ultrasound technique for male reproductive tract examination. Ultrasound evaluation of physiologic and pathologic conditions of external and internal reproduction organs is proposed. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.