X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in art and archaeology
Presents examples of analyses by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry in art and archaeology, including analyses of pigments in paint layers and illuminated manuscripts, of iridescent glasses, and of Medieval coins. Theoretical aspects of information depths and shielding effects in layered materials are discussed. Element maps were experimentally obtained by a specially designed x-ray spectrometer (1 x 1 mm pixel resolution) and by electron-excited XRF (electron microprobe). Modern methods of fundamental parameter computations including those for thin-film and multiple thin-film analyses and also Monte Carlo techniques for inhomogeneous specimens can be employed to reveal information that is otherwise inaccessible.