Exercise related syncope, when it's not the heart
Syncope or pre-syncope in association with physical exercise may be the first indication of a dangerous underlying cardiovascular condition. Thus, the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with exercise-related syncope must include assessment of the risk for acute cardiac death. When potentially lethal conditions have been ruled out, several hypotensive syndromes that are associated with exercise should be considered. This review aims to give a concise overview of several forms of exercise- related functional hypotensive syndromes causing syncope, including the physiology of post-exercise hypotension. The focus is on underlying mechanisms, clinical considerations, and outlining treatment strategies for these syndromes.